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M-Pesa has spread quickly, and by 2010 had become the most successful mobile-phone-based financial service in the developing world.
By 2012, a stock of about 17 million M-Pesa accounts had been registered in Kenya.
In particular, their 2016 article published in "Science" has been very influential in the international development community.
The much cited result of the paper was, that ‘access to M-PESA increased per capita consumption levels and lifted 194,000 households, or 2% of Kenyan households, out of poverty.
M-Pesa is operated by Safaricom and Vodacom, mobile network operators (MNO) not classed as deposit-taking institutions, such as a bank.
M-Pesa customers can deposit and withdraw money from a network of agents that includes airtime resellers and retail outlets acting as banking agents.
Transaction charges depend on the amount of money being transferred and whether the payee is a registered user of the service.
The actual cost is a fixed amount for a given range of transaction sizes; for example Safaricom charges up to 66 KShs (0.64 USD) for a transaction to an unregistered user for transactions between 101-500 KShs (0.98–4.84 USD) and 27 KShs (0.26 USD) for a transfer to a registered user for the same amount.
M-Pesa is a branchless banking service; M-Pesa customers can deposit and withdraw money from a network of agents that includes airtime resellers and retail outlets acting as banking agents.S Batchelor (Gamos) and N Hughes (Vodafone CSR) discussed how a system of money transfer could be created in Kenya.